German re-alignment to Austria-Hungary and Russian re-alignment to France, —[ edit ] In German and Russian alignment was secured by means of a secret Reinsurance Treaty arranged by Otto von Bismarck. However, in the treaty was allowed to lapse in favor of the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Here are five potential paths out Algorithms can help, but more fundamentally, we need to figure out what we want a diverse pool of information to look like. By Jonathan Stray jonathanstray July 11, July 11, The filter bubble is a name for an anxiety — the worry that our personalized interfaces to the Internet will end up telling us only what we want to hear, hiding everything unpleasant but important.
I have five proposals. The basic idea is this: The hyperlink has the magical ability to expose us to something completely different in just a single click. And anyway, was traditional, non-personalized news really that good at diversity?
We can order another round and argue about this forever, or we can try some new things. Stop speculating and start looking When we look at how people interact on the web, what do we actually see?
But it also showed that we tend to imagine our friends to be much more like us than they really are, thus inflating our perception of a filter bubble. On Twitter, people who tweet political terms break into left- and right-leaning social network clusters. But these sorts of studies cannot answer questions of cause and effect.
Do filtered media worlds cause the online segregation we see, or do people construct self-reinforcing filters because they already have divergent beliefs?
This is why the recent Facebook study of link sharing is so unusual: Drawing from a pool of million users and 73 million URLs, Facebook researchers hid certain links from the control groupexperimentally removing the effect of seeing that link on Facebook.
This breaks the dashed line of causation in the diagram below, which makes it possible to estimate, by comparison, the true influence of the algorithmically customized news feed on your behavior.
But because most people have many more distant friends than close friends, most of what the news feed actually influences us to share comes from weak tiesnot strong ones. In other words, the news feed tends to prompt us to view and re-share information from the edges of our social network, not the center.
This study has its limitations: Simultaneously, I think we also need to be studying older forms of media. Bring curation into journalism Editors still command attention.
Every time an article page includes a list of suggested stories, someone is directing attention. Editors can use this donated attention to puncture filter bubbles in ways people will appreciate.
A news editor has always been a sort of filter, making choices to cover particular stories and selecting their placement and prominence.
But they filter only the product of their own newsroom, while many others are filtering the entire web. How can users depend on a filter who ignores most of everything? Editors could become curatorscultivating the best work from both inside and outside the newsroom. A good curator rewards us for delegating our attentional choices to them.
We still like to give this job to people instead of machines, because people are smart, creative, idiosyncratic, and above all personal. We can form a relationship with a good curator, sometimes even a two-way relationship when we can use social networks to start a conversation with them at any moment.
News organizations tied to those media have been very slow to understand and embrace links and linking see thisthisand this.
There are many possible reasons why linking and curation have not been more fully adopted by traditional news organizations, but at heart I suspect it boils down to cultural issues and anxieties about authorship. Build better filtering algorithms Filtering algorithms are here to stay, and we can make them better.
In his bookPariser suggests a diversity control on our news reading applications: The task comes down to finding an algorithmic definition of diversity, and there are several avenues we could explore.
This is an essentially conservative approach. Luckily, this idea has mathematical form: We can borrow ideas from statistics and information theory and say that the algorithm should sample the space of possible items in a way that reduces uncertainty fastest.Dec 05, · Polarization can refer to such divergence like public opinion or even within certain groups there's only one simple explanation our congressional system was designed be a .
Sep 13, · Political Typology Reveals Deep Fissures on the Right and Left. Nearly a year after Donald Trump was elected president, the Republican coalition is deeply divided on such major issues as immigration, America’s role in the world and the fundamental fairness of the U.S.
Divided Government and Partisan Polarization. Learning Objectives. By the end of this section, you will be able to: the American Political Science Association’s Committee on Political Parties (APSA) published an article offering a criticism of the current party system.
The parties, it argued, were too similar. Summary. A divided. The filter bubble is a name for an anxiety — the worry that our personalized interfaces to the Internet will end up telling us only what we want to hear, hiding everything unpleasant but important. An Overview of the Polarization in the Political System in PAGES WORDS 2, View Full Essay.
More essays like this: polarization, bill clinton, political system, newt gingrich. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. The causes of World War I remain nationwidesecretarial.com War I began in the Balkans in late July and ended in November , leaving 17 million dead and 20 million wounded..
Scholars looking at the long-term seek to explain why two rival sets of powers – Germany and Austria-Hungary on the one hand, and Russia, France, and Great Britain on the other – had come into conflict by