Can Specific Phobias Be Prevented?
Saty Bhat Definition Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear related to being in situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing i. Panic is defined as extreme and unreasonable fear and anxiety.
According to the handbook used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersfourth edition, text revision, also known as the DSM-IV-TRpatients with agoraphobia are typically afraid of such symptoms as feeling dizzy, having an attack of diarrhea, fainting, or "going crazy.
Agoraphobia may intensify to the point that it interferes with a person's ability to take a job outside the home or to carry out such ordinary errands and activities as picking up groceries or going out to a movie.
Description The close association in agoraphobia between fear of being outside one's home and fear of having panic symptoms is reflected in DSM-IV-TR classification of two separate disorders: PD is essentially characterized by sudden attacks of fear and panic.
Genetic and environmental factors can cause phobias. Children who have a close relative with an anxiety disorder are at risk of developing a phobia. Distressing events, such as nearly drowning, can bring on a phobia. Exposure to confined spaces, extreme heights, and animal or insect bites can all be sources of phobias. Shy Children, Phobic Adults: Nature And Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder [Deborah C. Beidel, Samuel M. Turner] on nationwidesecretarial.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book describes the clinical presentation of social anxiety disorder, presents theoretical perspectives on its etiology. Connect with us. Follow us on Google+. Become a fan on Facebook.
There may be no known reason for the occurrence of panic attacks; they are frequently triggered by fear-producing events or thoughts, such as driving, or being in an elevator. PD is believed due to an abnormal activation of the body's hormonal system, causing a sudden "fight-or-flight" Phobic disorders.
The chief distinction between PD with agoraphobia and agoraphobia without PD is that patients who are diagnosed with PD with agoraphobia meet all criteria for PD; in agoraphobia without PD, patients are afraid of panic-like symptoms in public places, rather than full-blown panic attacks.
People with agoraphobia appear to suffer from two distinct types of anxiety— panic, and the anticipatory anxiety related to fear of future panic attacks. Patients with agoraphobia are sometimes able to endure being in the situations Phobic disorders fear by "gritting their teeth," or by having a friend or relative accompany them.
In the United States' diagnostic system, the symptoms of agoraphobia can be similar to those of specific phobia and social phobia.
Patients diagnosed with agoraphobia tend to be more afraid of their own internal physical sensations and similar cues than of the reactions of others per se. In cases of specific phobia, the person fears very specific situations, whereas in agoraphobia, the person generally fears a variety of situations being outside of the home alone, or traveling on public transportation including a bus, train, or automobile, for example.
An example of a patient diagnosed with a specific phobia rather than agoraphobia would be the person whose fear is triggered only by being in a bus, rather than a car or taxi. The fear of the bus is more specific than the agoraphobic's fear of traveling on public transportation in general.
The DSM-IVTR remarks that the differential diagnosis of agoraphobia "can be difficult because all of these conditions are characterized by avoidance of specific situations.
As ofthe causes of agoraphobia are complex and not completely understood.
It has been known for some years that anxiety disorders tend to run in families. Recent research has confirmed earlier hypotheses that there is a genetic component to agoraphobia, and that it can be separated from susceptibility to PD.
In a team of Yale geneticists reported the discovery of a genetic locus on human chomosome 3 that governs a person's risk of developing agoraphobia. PD was found to be associated with two loci: The researchers concluded that agoraphobia and PD are common; they are both inheritable anxiety disorders that share some, but not all, of their genetic loci for susceptibility.
A number of researchers have pointed to inborn temperament as a broad vulnerability factor in the development of anxiety and mood disorders. In other words, a person's natural disposition or temperament may become a factor in developing a number of mood or anxiety disorders. Some people seem more sensitive throughout their lives to events, but upbringing and life history are also important factors in determining who will develop these disorders.
Children who manifest what is known as "behavioral inhibition" in early infancy are at increased risk for developing more than one anxiety disorder in adult life—particularly if the inhibition remains over time.
Behavioral inhibition refers to a group of behaviors that are displayed when the child is confronted with a new situation or unfamiliar people. These behaviors include moving around, crying, and general irritability, followed by withdrawing, seeking comfort from a familiar person, and stopping what one is doing when one notices the new person or situation.
Children of depressed or anxious parents are more likely to develop behavioral inhibition. Another factor in the development of PD and agoraphobia appears to be a history of respiratory disease. Some researchers have hypothesized that repeated episodes of respiratory disease would predispose a child to PD by making breathing difficult and lowering the threshold for feeling suffocated.
It is also possible that respiratory diseases could generate fearful beliefs in the child's mind that would lead him or her to exaggerate the significance of respiratory symptoms. This statistic has been interpreted to mean that agoraphobia in adults is the aftermath of unresolved childhood separation anxiety.
The fact that many patients diagnosed with agoraphobia report that their first episode occurred after the death of a loved one, and the observation that other agoraphobics feel safe in going out as long as someone is with them, have been taken as supportive evidence of the separation anxiety hypothesis.
There are also theories about human learning that explain agoraphobia. It is thought that a person's initial experience of panic-like symptoms in a specific situation— for example, being alone in a subway station— may lead the person to associate physical symptoms of panic with all subway stations.
Avoiding all subway stations would then reduce the level of the person's discomfort. Unfortunately, the avoidance strengthens the phobia because the person is unlikely to have the opportunity to test whether subway stations actually cause uncomfortable physical sensations.
One treatment modality—exposure therapy—is based on the premise that phobias can be "unlearned" by reversing the pattern of avoidance. Gender role socialization has been suggested as an explanation for the fact that the majority of patients with agoraphobia are women.A phobia is a type of anxiety nationwidesecretarial.com is a strong, irrational fear of something that poses little or no real danger.
There are many specific phobias. Acrophobia is a fear of heights. Specific phobias commonly focus on animals, insects, germs, heights, thunder, driving, public transportation, flying, dental or medical procedures, and elevators.
Although people with phobias realize that their fear is irrational, even thinking about it . For most people, specific phobias can be successfully treated with therapy, medication, or a combination of both.
Can Specific Phobias Be Prevented? Although many specific phobias cannot be prevented, early intervention and treatment following a traumatic experience, such as an animal attack, may prevent the person from developing a . Shy Children, Phobic Adults: Nature And Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder [Deborah C.
Beidel, Samuel M. Turner] on nationwidesecretarial.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book describes the clinical presentation of social anxiety disorder, presents theoretical perspectives on its etiology.
Connect with us. Follow us on Google+. Become a fan on Facebook. Sarah Fitz-Claridge, ‘School phobia’ is a dreadful label for some children's perfectly understandable response to being compelled to go to school against their will. They are not phobic, any more than a conscientious objector is a coward; they are refusing – and in most cases very nobly.
Over the years, I have spoken to many worried parents of school-refusing children.